Q1. What is amniocentesis? Give one reason for statutory ban for amniocentesis.
Ans: A foetal sex-determination test based on the chromosome pattern in the cells found in amniotic fluid surrounding the developing embryo is called amniocentesis.
Statutory ban on amniocentesis for sex-determination to legally check (control) increasing female foeticides.
Q2. Mention the natural methods of contraception.
a. Periodic abstinence
b. Coitus interruptus
c. Lactational amenorrhea
Q3. What is MTP? Mention the safe period for MTP?
Ans: Medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) is defined as intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy before full term.
It is safer and effective during first trimester of pregnancy.
Q4. Mention the techniques involved in infertility control (ARTs).
1. Invitro fertilization (IVF)
2. ZIFT (Zygote Intra Fallopian Transfer)
3. GIFT (Gamete intra Fallopian Transfer)
4. Artificial insemination (AI)
5. Embryo Transfer (ET)
Q5. List the principles involved in preventing sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
1. Avoid sex with unknow partners/multiple partners.
2. Always use condoms during coitus.
3. Seek for the advice from a qualified doctor for early detection and treatment.
Q6. List the different types of IUDs. How do they function?
IUDs are the contraceptives which are inserted by doctors and experts in the uterus through vagina.
1. Non-medicated IUDs- These increase phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.
e.g., Lippes loop
2. Copper releasing IUDs- Copper (Cu) ions released from theses IUDs suppress sperm motility and fertilising capacity of sperms.
e.g., CuT, Cu7, Multiload 375
3. Hormone releasing IUDs- These make the uterus unsuitable for implantation and the cervix hostile to sperms.
e.g., Progestasert, LNG-20