Q1. Define the following terms:
a. Inbreeding depression
b. Inter specific hybridization
a. Inbreeding depression: Reduction of fertility and productivity of offspring due to close inbreeding.
b. Inter specific hybridization: It refers to crossing between male and female animals of two different related species.
c. Biofortification: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.
d. Micropropagation: The method of growing or producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.
e. Somaclones: The plants produced from tissue culture are genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown.
d. Totipotancy: The capacity of a cell explant to grow into a whole plant is called totipotency.
f. Explant: The part of the plant taken for tissue culture is called explant.
Q2. What are the important components of poultry farm management?
The important parameters of poultry firm management are:
❖ Selection of disease free, suitable breeds.
❖ Proper and safe farm conditions.
❖ Proper food and water.
❖ Hygiene and health care of the birds.
Q3. Discuss MOET technique of animal breeding.
Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is a programme for herd improvement in animals like cattle, sheep, rabbits, buffaloes, mares, etc...,
❖ In this method. a cow is administered hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super-ovulation.
❖ The cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg produced normally.
❖ It is now, either mated with an elite bull or artificial insemination is carried out.
❖ When the fertilised eggs attain 8—32 cells stage, they recovered non-surgically and transferred to a surrogate mother.
❖ The genetic mother can now be again super-ovulated.
Q4. What is tissue culture? Mention any two applications of tissue culture.
Ans: Tissue culture is an in-vitro technique of growing an entire plant from a single cell or any part of a plant on culture medium under aseptic conditions.
❖ A large number of plants can be grown in short time.
❖ Disease-free plants can be developed from diseased plants.
❖ Seedless plants can be multiplied.
❖ The plants where sexual reproduction is absent may undergo somatic hybridisation.
Q5. Differentiate out-crossing and out-breeding.
Out-crossing: It is a practice of mating animals of the same breed, that have no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations.
Cross-breeding: Cross-breeding refers to the mating of superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.
Q6. List out the processes carried out in dairy farm management.
❖ Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential and resistance to diseases.
❖ Cattle is well-housed with adequate water supply.
❖ The feeding of cattle should be emphasized with good quality and quantity of fodder.
❖ Hygiene is maintained while milking, storage and transport of milk and its products.
❖ Regular inspections along with keeping proper records.
❖ Regular visits by a veterinary doctor.
Q7. What is single cell protein (SCP)? Write its advantages.
Ans: It is an alternative protein source for animal and human nutrition from certain beneficial microorganisms like Spirulina.
Microbes like Spirulina, Methylophilus methylotrophus can be grown on industrial scale as
sources of good protein.
❖ Easy to grow
❖ High yield
❖ Reduces environmental pollution
Q8. Describe the major steps involved in plant breeding programmes.
❖ Collection of variability: The entire collection of diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection
❖ Evaluation and selection of parents: Evaluation of germplasm is carried out to identify plants with desirable combination of characters.
❖ Cross hybridisation among the selected parents: The cross hybridisation between the parents is done who produce hybrids that genetically combine to give desired characters in one plant.
❖ Selection and testing of superior recombinants: It involves the selection of plants among the progeny of the hybrids with desired combination of characters.
❖ Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars
Q9. What is biofortification? List any two biofortified crops and their importance.
Ans: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.
❖ Carrot, Spinach, Pumpkin - Rich in Vitamin A
❖ Spinach, bathua - Rich in Iron and Calcium
❖ Broad bean, lablab, French bean, garden pea -Rich in Protein
Q10. Mention the requirements for a successful bee-keeping.
A successful bee-keeping requires:
❖ Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.
❖ Selection of a suitable location for keeping the beehives.
❖ Catching and hiving of swarms (groups of bees).
❖ Management of beehives during different seasons.
❖ Handling and collection of honey and beeswax.