Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Q1. Define the following terms:
a. Inbreeding depression
b. Inter specific hybridization
c. Biofortification
d. Micropropagation
e. Somaclones
d. Totipotancy
f. Explant

a. Inbreeding depression: Reduction of fertility and productivity of offspring due to close inbreeding.

b. Inter specific hybridization: It refers to crossing between male and female animals of two different related species.

c. Biofortification: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.

d. Micropropagation: The method of growing or producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.

e. Somaclones: The plants produced from tissue culture are genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown.

d. Totipotancy: The capacity of a cell explant to grow into a whole plant is called totipotency.

f. Explant: The part of the plant taken for tissue culture is called explant.

Q2. What are the important components of poultry farm management?

The important parameters of poultry firm management are:
❖ Selection of disease free, suitable breeds.
❖ Proper and safe farm conditions.
❖ Proper food and water.
❖ Hygiene and health care of the birds.

Q3. Discuss MOET technique of animal breeding.

Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is a programme for herd improvement in animals like cattle, sheep, rabbits, buffaloes, mares, etc...,

❖ In this method. a cow is administered hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super-ovulation.
❖ The cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg produced normally.
❖ It is now, either mated with an elite bull or artificial insemination is carried out.
❖ When the fertilised eggs attain 8—32 cells stage, they recovered non-surgically and transferred to a surrogate mother.
❖ The genetic mother can now be again super-ovulated.

Q4. What is tissue culture? Mention any two applications of tissue culture.

Ans: Tissue culture is an in-vitro technique of growing an entire plant from a single cell or any part of a plant on culture medium under aseptic conditions.

❖ A large number of plants can be grown in short time.
❖ Disease-free plants can be developed from diseased plants.
❖ Seedless plants can be multiplied.
❖ The plants where sexual reproduction is absent may undergo somatic hybridisation.

Q5. Differentiate out-crossing and out-breeding.

Out-crossing: It is a practice of mating animals of the same breed, that have no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations.

Cross-breeding: Cross-breeding refers to the mating of superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.

Q6. List out the processes carried out in dairy farm management.

❖ Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential and resistance to diseases.
❖ Cattle is well-housed with adequate water supply.
❖ The feeding of cattle should be emphasized with good quality and quantity of fodder.
❖ Hygiene is maintained while milking, storage and transport of milk and its products.
❖ Regular inspections along with keeping proper records.
❖ Regular visits by a veterinary doctor.

Q7. What is single cell protein (SCP)? Write its advantages.

Ans: It is an alternative protein source for animal and human nutrition from certain beneficial microorganisms like Spirulina.

Microbes like Spirulina, Methylophilus methylotrophus can be grown on industrial scale as
sources of good protein.

❖ Easy to grow
❖ Nutrient-rich
❖ High yield
❖ Reduces environmental pollution

Q8. Describe the major steps involved in plant breeding programmes.

❖ Collection of variability: The entire collection of diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection

❖ Evaluation and selection of parents: Evaluation of germplasm is carried out to identify plants with desirable combination of characters.

❖ Cross hybridisation among the selected parents: The cross hybridisation between the parents is done who produce hybrids that genetically combine to give desired characters in one plant.

❖ Selection and testing of superior recombinants: It involves the selection of plants among the progeny of the hybrids with desired combination of characters.

❖ Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars

Q9. What is biofortification? List any two biofortified crops and their importance.

Ans: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.

❖ Carrot, Spinach, Pumpkin - Rich in Vitamin A
❖ Spinach, bathua - Rich in Iron and Calcium
❖ Broad bean, lablab, French bean, garden pea -Rich in Protein


Q10. Mention the requirements for a successful bee-keeping.

A successful bee-keeping requires:
❖ Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.
❖ Selection of a suitable location for keeping the beehives.
❖ Catching and hiving of swarms (groups of bees).
❖ Management of beehives during different seasons.
❖ Handling and collection of honey and beeswax.