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Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Q1. Define the following terms:
  1. Inbreeding depression

  2. Inter specific hybridization

  3. Biofortification

  4. Micropropagation

  5. Somaclones

  6. Totipotancy

  7. Explant


  1. Inbreeding depression: Reduction of fertility and productivity of offspring due to close inbreeding.

  2. Inter specific hybridization: It refers to crossing between male and female animals of two different related species.

  3. Biofortification: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.

  4. Micropropagation: The method of growing or producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.

  5. Somaclones: The plants produced from tissue culture are genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown.

  6. Totipotancy: The capacity of a cell explant to grow into a whole plant is called totipotency.

  7. Explant: The part of the plant taken for tissue culture is called explant.

Q2. What are the important components of poultry farm management?


The important parameters of poultry firm management are:

  • Selection of disease free, suitable breeds.

  • Proper and safe farm conditions.

  • Proper food and water.

  • Hygiene and health care of the birds.

Q3. Discuss MOET technique of animal breeding.

Ans: Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is a programme for herd improvement in animals like cattle, sheep, rabbits, buffaloes, mares, etc...,

  • In this method. a cow is administered hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super-ovulation.

  • The cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg produced normally.

  • It is now, either mated with an elite bull or artificial insemination is carried out.

  • When the fertilised eggs attain 8—32 cells stage, they recovered non-surgically and transferred to a surrogate mother.

  • The genetic mother can now be again super-ovulated.

Q4. What is tissue culture? Mention any two applications of tissue culture.

Ans: Tissue culture is an in-vitro technique of growing an entire plant from a single cell or any part of a plant on culture medium under aseptic conditions.


  • A large number of plants can be grown in short time.

  • Disease-free plants can be developed from diseased plants.

  • Seedless plants can be multiplied.

  • The plants where sexual reproduction is absent may undergo somatic hybridization.

Q5. Differentiate out-crossing and out-breeding.


Out-crossing: It is a practice of mating animals of the same breed, that have no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations.

Cross-breeding: Cross-breeding refers to the mating of superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.

Q6. List out the processes carried out in dairy farm management.


  • Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential and resistance to diseases.

  • Cattle is well-housed with adequate water supply.

  • The feeding of cattle should be emphasized with good quality and quantity of fodder.

  • Hygiene is maintained while milking, storage and transport of milk and its products.

  • Regular inspections along with keeping proper records.

  • Regular visits by a veterinary doctor.

Q7. What is single cell protein (SCP)? Write its advantages.

Ans: It is an alternative protein source for animal and human nutrition from certain beneficial microorganisms like Spirulina.

Microbes like Spirulina, Methylophilus methylotrophus can be grown on industrial scale as

sources of good protein.

  • Easy to grow

  • Nutrient-rich

  • High yield

  • Reduces environmental pollution

Q8. Describe the major steps involved in plant breeding programmes.


  • Collection of variability: The entire collection of diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection

  • Evaluation and selection of parents: Evaluation of germplasm is carried out to identify plants with desirable combination of characters.

  • Cross hybridisation among the selected parents: The cross hybridisation between the parents is done who produce hybrids that genetically combine to give desired characters in one plant.

  • Selection and testing of superior recombinants: It involves the selection of plants among the progeny of the hybrids with desired combination of characters.

  • Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars.

Q9. What is biofortification? List any two biofortified crops and their importance.

Ans: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.


  • Carrot, Spinach, Pumpkin - Rich in Vitamin A

  • Spinach, bathua - Rich in Iron and Calcium

  • Broad bean, lablab, French bean, garden pea -Rich in Protein

Q10. Mention the requirements for a successful bee-keeping.


A successful bee-keeping requires:

  • Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.

  • Selection of a suitable location for keeping the beehives.

  • Catching and hiving of swarms (groups of bees).

  • Management of beehives during different seasons.

  • Handling and collection of honey and beeswax.

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