Q1. Define the following terms:
Inter specific hybridization
Inbreeding depression: Reduction of fertility and productivity of offspring due to close inbreeding.
Inter specific hybridization: It refers to crossing between male and female animals of two different related species.
Biofortification: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.
Micropropagation: The method of growing or producing thousands of plants through tissue culture is called micropropagation.
Somaclones: The plants produced from tissue culture are genetically identical to the original plant from which they are grown.
Totipotancy: The capacity of a cell explant to grow into a whole plant is called totipotency.
Explant: The part of the plant taken for tissue culture is called explant.
Q2. What are the important components of poultry farm management?
The important parameters of poultry firm management are:
Selection of disease free, suitable breeds.
Proper and safe farm conditions.
Proper food and water.
Hygiene and health care of the birds.
Q3. Discuss MOET technique of animal breeding.
Ans: Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Technology (MOET) is a programme for herd improvement in animals like cattle, sheep, rabbits, buffaloes, mares, etc...,
In this method. a cow is administered hormones, with FSH-like activity, to induce follicular maturation and super-ovulation.
The cow produces 6-8 eggs instead of one egg produced normally.
It is now, either mated with an elite bull or artificial insemination is carried out.
When the fertilised eggs attain 8—32 cells stage, they recovered non-surgically and transferred to a surrogate mother.
The genetic mother can now be again super-ovulated.
Q4. What is tissue culture? Mention any two applications of tissue culture.
Ans: Tissue culture is an in-vitro technique of growing an entire plant from a single cell or any part of a plant on culture medium under aseptic conditions.
A large number of plants can be grown in short time.
Disease-free plants can be developed from diseased plants.
Seedless plants can be multiplied.
The plants where sexual reproduction is absent may undergo somatic hybridization.
Q5. Differentiate out-crossing and out-breeding.
Out-crossing: It is a practice of mating animals of the same breed, that have no common ancestors on either side of their pedigree up to 4-6 generations.
Cross-breeding: Cross-breeding refers to the mating of superior males of one breed with superior females of another breed.
Q6. List out the processes carried out in dairy farm management.
Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential and resistance to diseases.
Cattle is well-housed with adequate water supply.
The feeding of cattle should be emphasized with good quality and quantity of fodder.
Hygiene is maintained while milking, storage and transport of milk and its products.
Regular inspections along with keeping proper records.
Regular visits by a veterinary doctor.
Q7. What is single cell protein (SCP)? Write its advantages.
Ans: It is an alternative protein source for animal and human nutrition from certain beneficial microorganisms like Spirulina.
Microbes like Spirulina, Methylophilus methylotrophus can be grown on industrial scale as
sources of good protein.
Easy to grow
Reduces environmental pollution
Q8. Describe the major steps involved in plant breeding programmes.
Collection of variability: The entire collection of diverse alleles for all genes in a given crop is called germplasm collection
Evaluation and selection of parents: Evaluation of germplasm is carried out to identify plants with desirable combination of characters.
Cross hybridisation among the selected parents: The cross hybridisation between the parents is done who produce hybrids that genetically combine to give desired characters in one plant.
Selection and testing of superior recombinants: It involves the selection of plants among the progeny of the hybrids with desired combination of characters.
Testing, release and commercialisation of new cultivars.
Q9. What is biofortification? List any two biofortified crops and their importance.
Ans: It is the method for developing crops with higher levels of vitamins, minerals, proteins and healthier fats to improve public health.
Carrot, Spinach, Pumpkin - Rich in Vitamin A
Spinach, bathua - Rich in Iron and Calcium
Broad bean, lablab, French bean, garden pea -Rich in Protein
Q10. Mention the requirements for a successful bee-keeping.
A successful bee-keeping requires:
Knowledge of the nature and habits of bees.
Selection of a suitable location for keeping the beehives.
Catching and hiving of swarms (groups of bees).
Management of beehives during different seasons.
Handling and collection of honey and beeswax.