The infertile couples could be assisted to have children through certain special...
The infertile couples could be assisted to have children through certain special techniques called assisted reproductive technologies (ART), which are;
a. Test Tube Baby Programmes
In this method, ova from the wife/donor (female) and the sperms from the husband/donor (male) are collected and induced to form zygote under simulated conditions in the laboratory. This process is called in-vitro fertilisation (IVF).
The zygote or early embryo with up to 8 blastomeres is transferred into the fallopian tube (process is called zygote intra fallopian transfer or ZIFT) and embryo with more than 8 blastomeres is transferred into the uterus (process is called intra uterine transfer or IUT).
In females who cannot conceive, embryos formed by fusion of gametes in another female (called in vivo fertilisation) are transferred.
b. Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer (GIFT)
It is the transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce one, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation and further development of the embryo.
c. Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
It is a procedure to form an embryo in the laboratory by directly injecting the sperm into an ovum.
d. Artificial Insemination (Al)
In this method, the semen collected either from the husband or a healthy donor is artificially introduced into the vagina or into the uterus (intra uterine insemination or IUI).
This technique is used in cases where the male is unable to inseminate sperms in the female reproductive tract or due to very low sperm counts in the ejaculation.