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44. a) Write any four tools used in recombinant DNA technology.
b) Mention any two methods of introducing alien DNA into host cells.
c) Name the stain used to visualize DNA fragments in Gel electrophoresis.


a) The key tools required for the recombinant DNA technology are:

  1. Restriction enzymes

  2. Ligases

  3. Host organism/cell

  4. Polymerase enzymes

  5. Vectors

b) Chemical method, Micro injection, Biolistics or Genegun method.

c) Ethedium bromide

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