FOOD CONSTITUENTS

Food is the basic need of all organisms. 

Growth, development, maintenance and biotic activities are regulated by food.

CARBOHYDRATES

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The carbohydrate is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1 and a general basic formula Of the carbodydrate is (CH20). The carbohydrates is the main source Of energy and energy required to the body is given by it. The starch, sugar, glucose etc are the examples of carbohydrates. The main source Of carbohydrates are wheat, rice, maize, millet, potato, turnip, beet root, banana etc.

The carbohydrate is Of three types—

1. Monosaccharides : These are the most simple form Of carbohydrate and its general formula is (CH20)n.

There are various examples of monosaccharides like Triose (Glyceraldehyde), Tetrose (Erthrose), Hexose

(Glucose, Fructose, Galactose) etc.

2. Disaccharides : These are made of molecules of monosaccharides and its general formula is C12H22O11. There are various examples Of disaccharides like Sucrose-sugarcane, Maltose, Lactose etc.

3. polysaccharides : These are made of a number of monosaccharides (more than three) molecules and its general formula is (C6H11O5)n. Polysaccharides are extracted from the plants and these are insoluble in water. According to the requirement these can be hydrolised and decomposed into glucose. Thus polysaccharides is used as a Stored

fuel for the energy production. There are also so many examples of polysaccharides like Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin etc.

Main Functions Of Carbohydrate

1. To supply energy to the body by the process of oxidation.

2. To work like to store the food in the body.

3. To form nucleic acids and work as raw materials for the production of other Substances.

4. To build the external skeletons in the animals.

LIPIDS/FATS

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LIPID/FAT - The molecules Of fat are made Of the combination Of glycerol and fatty acid. Like the carbohydrate, fat is also an organic compound Of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but in comparison to carbohydrate, the amount Of oxygen is very small in the fat.

The fat is completely insoluble in water, while it is soluble in the organic Solvents like chloroform, benzene, petroleum etc. Fats Can be emulsified easily through the alkali. 


On the basis of the Occurrence of the sources, fat can be classified in two groups:


1. Animal fat : The animal fats are found in various substances like in mills paneer, butter, egg, meat, fish 
etc in the form of oil.


2. vegetative fat : The vegetative fats are found in the vegetative oils and these are extracted from the 
ground nut, coconut, almond, mustard, sunflower etc.


The fat in the fluid form is called oil.

 
Fatty acid : This is of two types: 


a. Saturated fatty acid : Almost all saturated fat or fatty acid is animal fat and at an ordinary temperature 
it exists in the in the form of solid like butter etc. 

 

b. Unsaturated fatty acid : The unsaturated fat or fatty acid is found in the oils of fish and vegetation. Normally for an adult person 20%-30% energy must be taken ideally from the fats.

Main Functions of Fat 
1. The fat is the stored source of energy. 
2. In order to provide the resistive layer in the human bodies, fats are stored up behind the skin. 
3. In order to protect and provide safety to various organs of the human bodies in the form of shock resistive layer.
 

PROTEINS

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The proteins are basically made of the smaller components of various types of amino acids. In almost all animals nearly 20 types of amino acids combine and compose themselves to form the proteins. 

The proteins are vital for the physiological growth and Various other activities of the human bodies. Thus Proteins are not only the structural substances of the human bodies but also necessary for the nourishment purposes.


Types of protein : There are various sources of protein like milk, egg, pulses, paneer, meat, fish etc, in which these are found abundantly.

Usually the protein is of three types: 


1. Simple protein : The protein which is basically made of amino acids only is called simple protein. There are various examples of such proteins like albumin, albuminoides, globulin, glutelins etc. 


2. Conjugated protein : The protein which is made of not only from the molecules of amino acid but of some another molecules of the substance combine in a homogeneous proportion is called conjugated protein. 
The examples of such proteins are nucleioproteins, glycoproteins, phospho-proteins, lipoproteins, opsins etc. 


3. Derived protein : The protein which is obtained and extracted from the partial hydrolic decomposition (hydrolysis) of naturally occurring protein is called derived protein.

The substances like insulin, fibrin, peptides etc. are the examples of derived protein.


Main Functions of Protein 
1. It is necessary for the physiological growth of the body and its lack causes disruption in the body growth. 
2. It takes part in the synthesis of cells, protoplasm and tissues culturing. 

3. The proteins act like bio catalyst and biotic regulator. 

4. It helps in the development of genetic characteristics and in controlling the hereditary activities. 

5. In emergency it also provides instantaneous energy. 

6. It helps in the movement and transportational activities.
 

VITAMINS

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