Food is the basic need of all organisms.
Growth, development, maintenance and biotic activities are regulated by food.
The carbohydrate is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in the ratio of 1:2:1 and a general basic formula Of the carbodydrate is (CH20). The carbohydrates is the main source Of energy and energy required to the body is given by it. The starch, sugar, glucose etc are the examples of carbohydrates. The main source Of carbohydrates are wheat, rice, maize, millet, potato, turnip, beet root, banana etc.
The carbohydrate is Of three types—
1. Monosaccharides : These are the most simple form Of carbohydrate and its general formula is (CH20)n.
There are various examples of monosaccharides like Triose (Glyceraldehyde), Tetrose (Erthrose), Hexose
(Glucose, Fructose, Galactose) etc.
2. Disaccharides : These are made of molecules of monosaccharides and its general formula is C12H22O11. There are various examples Of disaccharides like Sucrose-sugarcane, Maltose, Lactose etc.
3. polysaccharides : These are made of a number of monosaccharides (more than three) molecules and its general formula is (C6H11O5)n. Polysaccharides are extracted from the plants and these are insoluble in water. According to the requirement these can be hydrolised and decomposed into glucose. Thus polysaccharides is used as a Stored
fuel for the energy production. There are also so many examples of polysaccharides like Starch, Glycogen, Cellulose, Chitin etc.
Main Functions Of Carbohydrate
1. To supply energy to the body by the process of oxidation.
2. To work like to store the food in the body.
3. To form nucleic acids and work as raw materials for the production of other Substances.
4. To build the external skeletons in the animals.
LIPID/FAT - The molecules Of fat are made Of the combination Of glycerol and fatty acid. Like the carbohydrate, fat is also an organic compound Of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, but in comparison to carbohydrate, the amount Of oxygen is very small in the fat.
The fat is completely insoluble in water, while it is soluble in the organic Solvents like chloroform, benzene, petroleum etc. Fats Can be emulsified easily through the alkali.
On the basis of the Occurrence of the sources, fat can be classified in two groups:
1. Animal fat : The animal fats are found in various substances like in mills paneer, butter, egg, meat, fish
etc in the form of oil.
2. vegetative fat : The vegetative fats are found in the vegetative oils and these are extracted from the
ground nut, coconut, almond, mustard, sunflower etc.
The fat in the fluid form is called oil.
Fatty acid : This is of two types:
a. Saturated fatty acid : Almost all saturated fat or fatty acid is animal fat and at an ordinary temperature
it exists in the in the form of solid like butter etc.
b. Unsaturated fatty acid : The unsaturated fat or fatty acid is found in the oils of fish and vegetation. Normally for an adult person 20%-30% energy must be taken ideally from the fats.
Main Functions of Fat
1. The fat is the stored source of energy.
2. In order to provide the resistive layer in the human bodies, fats are stored up behind the skin.
3. In order to protect and provide safety to various organs of the human bodies in the form of shock resistive layer.
The proteins are basically made of the smaller components of various types of amino acids. In almost all animals nearly 20 types of amino acids combine and compose themselves to form the proteins.
The proteins are vital for the physiological growth and Various other activities of the human bodies. Thus Proteins are not only the structural substances of the human bodies but also necessary for the nourishment purposes.
Types of protein : There are various sources of protein like milk, egg, pulses, paneer, meat, fish etc, in which these are found abundantly.
Usually the protein is of three types:
1. Simple protein : The protein which is basically made of amino acids only is called simple protein. There are various examples of such proteins like albumin, albuminoides, globulin, glutelins etc.
2. Conjugated protein : The protein which is made of not only from the molecules of amino acid but of some another molecules of the substance combine in a homogeneous proportion is called conjugated protein.
The examples of such proteins are nucleioproteins, glycoproteins, phospho-proteins, lipoproteins, opsins etc.
3. Derived protein : The protein which is obtained and extracted from the partial hydrolic decomposition (hydrolysis) of naturally occurring protein is called derived protein.
The substances like insulin, fibrin, peptides etc. are the examples of derived protein.
Main Functions of Protein
1. It is necessary for the physiological growth of the body and its lack causes disruption in the body growth.
2. It takes part in the synthesis of cells, protoplasm and tissues culturing.
3. The proteins act like bio catalyst and biotic regulator.
4. It helps in the development of genetic characteristics and in controlling the hereditary activities.
5. In emergency it also provides instantaneous energy.
6. It helps in the movement and transportational activities.
Vitamins: Chemical names and deficiency disorders
The term vitamin was derived from 'vitamine', a compound word coined by the Polish biochemist Kazimierz Funk in 1912.
Vitamin : The chemical substance which is not important from the energy point of view but which directly controls (regulates) the metabolic activities in the human bodies is called vitamin.
The synthesis of vitamins doesn't take place directly by the cells in the human bodies so this is supplied through the vitamineous food.
Generally vitamins are represented by the capital letters of English alphabet like A, B, C, D, E etc.
On the basis of the solubility of the vitamins these are classified into two groups:
1. Water soluble vitamins : The vitamin-B and vitamin-C are soluble in water but these vitamins do
not dissolve in fats and organic solvents.
2. Fat soluble vitamins : The vitamin-A, vitamin-D, vitamin-E and vitamin-K are soluble in fat and organic
solvents, while these vitamins are insoluble in water.
Different types of minerals from the food-stuffs through which various metabolic activities are controlled/ regulated in the human bodies.
Water is defined as an essential nutrient because it is required in amounts that exceed the body's ability to produce it. All biochemical reactions occur in water. It fills the spaces in and between cells and helps form structures of large molecules such as protein and glycogen. Water is also required for digestion, absorption, transportation, dissolving nutrients, elimination of waste products and thermoregulation (Kleiner 1999).
Water accounts for 50-80% of body weight, depending on lean body mass. On average, men have a higher lean body mass than women and higher percentage of body mass as water than in women. The relative mass of water decreases in both men and women with age. Human requirements for water are related to metabolic needs and are highly variable. They depend to some extent on individual metabolism.
The body must retain a minimal amount to maintain a tolerable solute load for the kidneys. Excluding perspiration, the normal turnover of water is approximately 4% of total body weight in adults. In a 70 kg adult, this is equivalent to 2,500-3,000 mL/day.
Water losses from lungs and skin (insensible losses) are responsible for 50% of the total water turnover. They are sensitive to environmental conditions and can be increased at high temperatures, high altitude and low humidity. During summer, when heat stress may be high, water depletion can lead to heat exhaustion, loss of consciousness and heat stroke (Cheung et al 1998, Hubbard & Armstrong 1988). Unfit, overweight, older people may be especially at risk, particularly if they are subjected to strenuous exercise. Infants and dependent children may also be at risk if not offered sufficient fluids. The remainder of the losses are from urine and stools.
Roughage, or fiber, refers to the carbs in plants that your body cannot digest. This article uses the terms roughage and fiber interchangeably.
Once roughage reaches your large intestine, it’s either broken down by your gut bacteria or exits your body in your stools.
There are two main types of fiber — soluble and insoluble. Most foods high in roughage contain a combination of these but are usually richer in one type.
In the gut, soluble fiber absorbs water to become gel-like. This allows your gut bacteria to break it down easily. Chia seeds and oats are both high in soluble fiber.
In contrast, insoluble fiber has a more rigid microscopic structure and does not absorb water. Instead, it adds bulk to stools. Fruits and vegetables contain high amounts of insoluble fiber .