PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE AND VARIATION
Question 1: Mention the advantages of selecting pea plant for experiment by Mendel.
Answer: Mendel selected pea plants to carry out his study on the inheritance of characters from parents to offspring. He selected a pea plant because of the following features.
Peas have many visible contrasting characters such as tall/dwarf plants, round/wrinkled seeds, green/yellow pod, purple/white flowers, etc.
Peas have bisexual flowers and therefore undergo self pollination easily. Thus, pea plants produce offsprings with same traits generation after generation.
In pea plants, cross pollination can be easily achieved by emasculation in which the stamen of the flower is removed without affecting the pistil.
Pea plants have a short life span and produce many seeds in one generation.
Question 2: Differentiate between the following −
(a) Dominance and Recessive
(b) Homozygous and Heterozygous
(c) Monohybrid and Dihybrid.
Question 3: A diploid organism is heterozygous for 4 loci, how many types of gametes can be produced?
Answer: Locus is a fixed position on a chromosome, which is occupied by a single or more genes. Heterozygous organisms contain different alleles for an allelic pair. Hence, a diploid organism, which is heterozygous at four loci, will have four different contrasting characters at four different loci. For example, if an organism is heterozygous at four loci with four characters, say Aa, Bb, Cc, Dd, then during meiosis, it will segregate to form 8 separate gametes. If the genes are not linked, then the diploid organism will produce 16 different gametes. However, if the genes are lin