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REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

EXERCISE SOLUTIONS

FOR IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

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Question 1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?

Ans: The total well-being in all aspects of reproduction, i.e., physical, emotional, behavioural, and social.

Sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS, gonorrhoea, syphilis etc. are transferred from one individual to another through sexual contact. It can also lead to unwanted pregnancies. Hence, it is necessary to create awareness among people, especially the youth, regarding various reproduction related aspects as the young individuals are the future of the country and they are most susceptible of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases.

 

Question 2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.

Ans:

i. Introduction of sex education in schools that helps in eradicating myths and misconceptions regarding sex-related aspects.

ii. Proper information about reproductive organs, safe and hygienic sexual practices and STDs.

iii. Awareness of problems due to uncontrolled population growth, social evils like sex-abuse sex-related crimes, etc.,

iv. Strong infra-structural facilities, professional expertise and material support to provide medical assistance and care to people in reproduction-related problems.

 

Question 3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?

Ans: Yes, Sex education in schools is necessary.

i. It will provide proper information about reproductive organs, adolescence, safe and hygienic practices and sexually transmitted diseases.

ii. It will provide right information to avoid myths and misconceptions about sex-related queries.

 

Question 4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.

Ans: Yes, the reproductive health has tremendously improved in India in the last 50 years. The areas of improvement are as follows.

i. Massive child immunization programme, which has lead to a decrease in the infant mortality rate

ii. Maternal and infant mortality rate, which has been decreased drastically due to better post natal care

iii. Family planning, which has motivated people to have smaller families

iv. Use of contraceptive, which has resulted in a decrease in the rate of sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies

 

Question 5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?

Ans: The human population is increasing day by day, leading to population explosion. It is because of the following two major reasons.

a. Rapid decline in death rate

b. Decline in maternal mortality rate (MMR)

c. Decline in infant mortality rate (IMR)

d. Increase in number of people in reproduceable age

Question 6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.

Ans: Yes, the use of contraceptives is absolutely justified.  Because it helps to control the rapid growth of human population. It will also help in preventing unwanted pregnancies and STDs.

 

7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?

Ans: Removal of gonads not only stops the production of gametes but will also stop the secretion of various important hormones which are important for bodily functions and masculine characters. This method is irreversible and thus, it cannot be considered as a contraceptive method.

 

8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.

Ans: Amniocentesis is a pre-natal diagnostic technique that is used to determine the sex and metabolic disorders of the developing foetus in the mother’s uterus through the observation of the chromosomal patterns.

This method was developed so as to determine any kind of genetic disorder present in the foetus. However, unfortunately, this technique is being misused to detect the sex of the child before birth and the female foetus is then aborted. Thus, to prevent the increasing female foeticides, it is necessary to ban the usage of amniocentesis technique for determining the sex of a child.

 

9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.

Ans: Infertility is the inability of a couple to produce a baby even after unprotected intercourse. It might be due to abnormalities present in either male or female or might be even both the partners. The techniques used to assist infertile couples to have children are as follows.

a. Test tube baby programme - This involves in-vitro fertilization and ZIFT

b. Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT)

c. Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)

d. Artificial insemination

 

10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?

Ans: STDs can be prevented by following methods;

i. Abstaining sexual contact with multiple partners/strangers.

ii. Always use condoms during sexual intercourse.

iii. Use Sterilised syringes and surgical instruments.

iv. Always contact qualified doctor for any doubt in early stage infection and get diagnosed with disease.

 

11. State True/False with explanation

(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)

- True: Due to internal factors like incompatibility, abortion could happen spontaneously.

(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)

- False: Infertility may also be caused due to male partner when sperm count is low, or their mobility is less.

(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)

-True: Lactational amenorrhea is a method of traditional contraception as ovulation doesn’t occur during the period of intense lactation following parturition.

(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)

-True: Creating awareness about sex-related aspects removes the myths and misconceptions about these problems.

 

Question 12. Correct the following statements:

(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.

(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.

(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.

(d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.

Ans:

(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent the transfer of gamete during intercourse.

(b) Some of the sexually transmitted diseases are curable if they are detected early and treated properly. AIDS is still an incurable disease.

(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among urban women.

(d) In embryo transfer technique, 8 celled embryos are transferred into the fallopian tube while more than 8 celled embryos are transferred into the uterus.

IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

 
  1. a. What are the features of an ideal contraceptive? b. Mention the natural methods of contraception. (2+3marks)

  2. Why there is a statutory ban on amniocentesis in our country? (1-mark)

  3. How do oral contraceptives prevent conception? (2-marks)

  4. Expand ZIFT. (1-mark)

  5. How copper releasing IUDs functions? Give examples? (2-marks)

  6. Differentiate between vasectomy and tubectomy. (2-marks)

  7. List any 4 sexual transmitted diseases. (2-marks)

  8. What is infertility? Explain IVF-ET and ZIFT methods to assist infertile couple to have children. (5-marks)

  9. How do hormonal IUDs differ from non-medicated IUDs as contraceptives? (2-marks)

  10. Mention any three strategies of reproductive health. (3-marks)

  11. What is amniocentesis? (1-mark)

  12. Expand GIF and ICSI. (2-marks)

  13. List any four assisted reproductive technique. (2-marks)

  14. How do IUDs prevent conception in human? (3-marks)

  15. Name any two reproductive health problems. (2-marks)