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44. a) Write any four tools used in recombinant DNA technology.
b) Mention any two methods of introducing alien DNA into host cells.
c) Name the stain used to visualize DNA fragments in Gel electrophoresis.
46. a) Mention any two mechanisms how human body compensates low oxygen availability at higher altitudes.
b) Write two suspended activities in animals against abiotic stresses with suitable examples.
c) The Abington tortoise in Galapagos Islands become extinct after goats were introduced on the Island. Mention the type of interaction.
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